Richard I

Richard the Lionheart, the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was born in Oxford in 1157. While still a child, he was granted the duchy of Aquitaine. Encouraged by his mother, in 1173 Richard joined his brothers Henry and Geoffrey in the rebellion against their father.

When Henry II died in 1189, Richard was the eldest surviving son and therefore became king of England, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou. Soon afterwards, Richard took part in the Third Crusade. Considered to be the best military commander in the Christian world, his army managed to defeat Saladin, the Muslim leader, at Arsuf in 1191.

On his way home Richard was captured by Duke Leopold of Austria. While his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, was busy raising the ?70,000 ransom money, Richard's younger brother John tried to seize the throne. Richard was released in 1194 and he spent the next couple of years winning back the territory he had lost while he had been away.

Edward, 1042-1066 William I, 1066-1087 William II, 1087-1100 Henry I, 1100-1135 Stephen, 1135-1154 Henry II, 1154-1189 Richard I, 1189-1199 John, 1199-1216 Henry III, 1216-1272 Edward I, 1272-1307 Edward II, 1307-1327 Edward III, 1327-1377 Richard II, 1377-1399 Henry IV, 1399-1413 Henry V, 1413-1422 Henry VI, 1422-1461 Edward IV, 1461-1483 Edward V, 1483-1483 Richard III, 1483-1485 Henry VII, 1485-1509 Henry VIII, 1509-1547 Edward VI, 1547-1553 Mary, 1553-1558 Elizabeth I, 1558-1603 James I, 1603-1625 Charles I, 1625-1649 Charles II, 1660-1685 James II, 1685-1688 Mary II, 1688-1694 William III, 1688-1702 Anne, 1702-1714 George I, 1714-1727 George II, 1727-1760 George III, 1760-1820 George IV, 1820-1830 William IV, 1830-1837 Victoria, 1837-1901 Edward VII, 1901-1910 George V, 1910-1936 Edward VIII, 1936 George VI, 1936-1952