Edward I

Edward, the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence, was born in 1239. When Edward was fifteen he married Eleanor of Castile. The couple had sixteen children but most of them did not reach adulthood.

At first, Edward supported the barons in their struggle with Henry III. In May 1258 the barons went to see the king. They demanded that in future the king should not make decisions without consulting his barons. Fearing a civil war that he would lose, Henry accepted their demands for reform (the Provisions of Oxford).

Fifteen barons, including Simon de Montfort, were selected to become members of this advisory council. However, it was not long before Henry was ignoring his advisers. When the barons complained, Henry bribed them with gifts.

Montfort refused to change his mind over the need for a permanent council. He had a reputation for being sympathetic to the needs of ordinary people. This helped him gain the support of the majority of people who lived in the large towns and cities. For example, in London the people rebelled against Henry and handed over the city to Montfort.

Edward, 1042-1066 William I, 1066-1087 William II, 1087-1100 Henry I, 1100-1135 Stephen, 1135-1154 Henry II, 1154-1189 Richard I, 1189-1199 John, 1199-1216 Henry III, 1216-1272 Edward I, 1272-1307 Edward II, 1307-1327 Edward III, 1327-1377 Richard II, 1377-1399 Henry IV, 1399-1413 Henry V, 1413-1422 Henry VI, 1422-1461 Edward IV, 1461-1483 Edward V, 1483-1483 Richard III, 1483-1485 Henry VII, 1485-1509 Henry VIII, 1509-1547 Edward VI, 1547-1553 Mary, 1553-1558 Elizabeth I, 1558-1603 James I, 1603-1625 Charles I, 1625-1649 Charles II, 1660-1685 James II, 1685-1688 Mary II, 1688-1694 William III, 1688-1702 Anne, 1702-1714 George I, 1714-1727 George II, 1727-1760 George III, 1760-1820 George IV, 1820-1830 William IV, 1830-1837 Victoria, 1837-1901 Edward VII, 1901-1910 George V, 1910-1936 Edward VIII, 1936 George VI, 1936-1952