Gunpowder weapons were the leading edge of technology in the late medieval
Gunpowder weapons took two forms, artillery, and hand-held guns. The two
systems were employed tactically in sieges and battles
All forms of gunpowder weapons relied on chemical and metal-working
advancements of the time, and their effective exploitation in warfare relied
upon new thinking of the military commanders.
The earliest employment of gunpowder weapons may not have been recorded,
as such incidents in battle were most likely experiments. The first few
reports of guns in chronicles are often questioned. Modern scholars
distinguish between combustible objects being hurled from non-gunpowder
machines, and the actual use of gunpowder as an explosive to propel objects
from a gun.