The Shofar is the ritual instrument of the
ancient and modern Hebrews, the only Hebrew cultural instrument to have
survived until now. Of martial origin, the shofar was a priestly instrument
in Biblical times. According to the Mishna, two different forms of shofar
were used in the Temple.
One made of ibex horn
Its bell ornamented with gold, was sounded at New Year andduring the
One made of ram's horn
With silver ornamentation, was sounded on fast days.
We learn from the Mishna and the Talmud that in
the Hellenistic period no improvements or modifications that might affect
the tone were permitted: no gold-plating of its interior, no plugging of
holes, no alteration of its length, the shofar tone was to be preserved
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