Calico is a fabric made from unbleached, and often not fully processed, cotton. It may contain un separated husk parts. The fabric is less coarse and thick than canvas or denim, but owing to its unfinished and un dyed appearance, it is still very cheap. The name Calico is derived from the name of the city of Calicut (Kozhikode) third largest city in the state of Kerala, India and was part of erstwhile Malabar District.
An extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required.
Cashmere wool
The Cashmere (Kashmir) or down goat. From the fine, soft undercoat or under layer of hair. The straighter and coarser outer coat is called guard hair. From the high plateaus of Asia. Today, little is supplied by the Kashmir State of India, from which its name is derived.
Cloth or fabric is a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres (thread or yarn) formed by weaving or knitting (textiles), or pressed into felt. Cloth is most often used in the manufacture of clothing, household furnishings, and art such as tapestry.
A coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. Brown coir is used in brushes, doormats, mattresses and sacking. A small amount is also made into twine. Pads of curled brown coir fibre, made by needle-felting (a machine technique that mats the fibres together) are shaped and cut to fill mattresses.
As a fabric, corduroy is considered a durable cloth. Socially, the clothes made from corduroy are considered casual, and are usually favoured in colder climates during seasonal periods. Corduroy is most commonly found in the construction of pants or trousers. The material is also used in the construction of (sport) jackets and shirts. The width of the cord is commonly referred to as ?wale?; the size of the wale. The width of the ?wale? makes some uses more common than others. Wide ?wale? is more commonly found on pants.
A fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. The term originally referred to ornamental silk fabrics from Damascus, which were elaborately woven in colours, sometimes with the addition of gold and other metallic threads.
Denotes a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- "double") or more warp fibres, producing the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim was traditionally coloured blue with indigo dye to make blue "jeans," though "jean" denoted a different, lighter cotton textile.
A non woven fabric where the fibre forms the structure of the fabric. This occurs by a process of wet felting where the natural wool fibre is stimulated by friction and lubricated by moisture (usually water) and the fibres move at a 90 degree angle towards the friction source and then away again, in effect making little 'tacking' stitches.
A material with an open, diamond shaped knit. Fishnet is most often used as a material for stockings, tights or body stockings. Fishnet is available in a multitude of colours, though most often sported in traditional matte black. Fishnet is commonly worn on the legs and arms by practitioners of Goth.
A fabric that is commonly used to make clothing and bed sheets. It is usually made from either wool, wool and cotton, or wool and synthetic fabric. The term "flannel" is also often used to refer directly to the clothing created from the fabric. Clothing made from it is usually worn in cold weather climates due to the warmness that the fabric is known for.
A tough, tightly woven fabric used to make suits, overcoats and trousers, or a garment made from the material. The fibre used to make the fabric is traditionally worsted (a woollen yarn), but may also be cotton, synthetic or mixed. The fabric is smooth on one side and has a diagonally ribbed surface on the other. The fabric takes its name from the garment, the gabardine, which is a long, loose over garment tied at the waist.
A long, soft, shiny fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is one of the cheapest natural fibres, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose, lignin, and pectin. Both the fibre and the plant from which it comes are commonly called jute.
A material made from the fibres of the flax plant. When these fibres are twisted together (spun), it is called yarn. It is strong, durable, and resists rotting in damp climates. It is one of the few textiles that has a greater breaking strength wet than dry. The fibre in its un-spun state is called flax. After it is spun into yarn it becomes linen.
A silk-like fabric made from the hair of the Angora goat. It is durable, light and warm. The word was adopted into English before 1570 from the Arabic mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally 'choice', from khayyana, 'he chose'.
Non-woven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt. Non-woven are typically not strong, and do not stretch. They are cheap to manufacture. Non-woven fabric is manufactured by putting small fibres together in the form of a sheet and then binding them either mechanically, with an adhesive.
A transparent fibre made of processed cellulose. Cellulose fibres from wood or cotton are dissolved in alkali to make a solution called viscose, which is then extruded through a nozzle, into an acid bath to reconvert the viscose into cellulose. Rayon was originally named artificial silk, but the name rayon was created in 1924. Unlike nylon, rayon absorbs water, making it more comfortable to wear as a clothing textile.
A thick cloth that has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is traditionally made of silk, but can be rayon.
A type of woollen cloth common in mediaeval England. The name refers to the actual cloth, not the reddish orange colour. It is probable that name of the character Will Scarlett in the Robin Hood legends referred to this type of cloth.
A very light textile made from cotton, or sometimes flax. Their lightweight and translucence means it is often used for curtains. The fabric can also be used for bookbinding and upholstery. Scrims have also seen extensive use in theatre where they are often used for special effects. The advantage of scrims is that with certain they can appear opaque to the audience until a quick change in stage lighting makes them almost fully transparent.
A type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a 2-up, 2-down weave. The worsted variety is used in making military uniforms, suits, great and trench coats. Its counterpart, silk serge, is used for linings.
A natural fibre that can be woven into textiles. It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm larva, in the process known as sericulture, which kills the larvae.
A specific woven pattern that often signifies a particular Scottish clan in the modern era. The pattern is made with alternating bands of coloured threads woven as both warp and weft at right angles to each other. Kilts almost always have tartans. Tartan is also known as plaid in North America, but in Scotland this word means a tartan cloth slung over the shoulder or blanket.
A form of textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet. It combines the stretchy properties of knits such as spandex with the rich appearance and feel of velvet. It is used in dancewear for the ease of movement it affords. Velour is also popular for warm, colourful casual clothing.
A form of textile that is woven special looms. It is a tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, giving it its distinct feel. Two pieces of velvet must be woven at the same time. They are then cut apart and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls. Velvet was very expensive. Corduroy and velveteen, when first produced, were considered the "poor man's velvet".
A viscous organic liquid used to make rayon and cellophane. Cellulose from wood or cotton fibres is treated with sodium hydroxide, then mixed with carbon disulphide to form cellulose xanthate, which is dissolved in more sodium hydroxide. The resulting viscose is extruded through a slit to make cellophane, or through a spinneret to make viscose rayon. The process for manufacturing viscose was discovered by three British chemists, Charles Cross, Edward Bevan and Clayton Beadle.
Most of the fibre from domestic sheep has two qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is scaled in such a way that it helps the animal move out burrs and seeds that might embed themselves into its skin; and it is crimped, in some fleeces more than 20 bends per inch
A long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, knitting, weaving and rope making. Yarn can be made from any number of synthetic or natural fibres. Very thin yarn is referred to as thread. Yarns are made up of any number of plys, each ply being a single thread these threads being twisted together to make the final yarn

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