Calico is a fabric made from unbleached, and often not fully processed, cotton.
It may contain un separated husk parts. The fabric is less coarse and thick than
canvas or denim, but owing to its unfinished and un dyed appearance, it is still
very cheap. The name Calico is derived from the name of the city of Calicut (Kozhikode)
third largest city in the state of Kerala, India and was part of erstwhile
An extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other
functions where sturdiness is required.
The Cashmere (Kashmir) or down goat. From the fine, soft undercoat or under
layer of hair. The straighter and coarser outer coat is called guard hair. From
the high plateaus of Asia. Today, little is supplied by the Kashmir State of
India, from which its name is derived.
Cloth or fabric is a flexible artificial material made up of a network of
natural or artificial fibres (thread or yarn) formed by weaving or knitting
(textiles), or pressed into felt. Cloth is most often used in the manufacture of
clothing, household furnishings, and art such as tapestry.
A coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. Brown coir
is used in brushes, doormats, mattresses and sacking. A small amount is also
made into twine. Pads of curled brown coir fibre, made by needle-felting (a
machine technique that mats the fibres together) are shaped and cut to fill
As a fabric, corduroy is considered a durable cloth. Socially, the clothes made
from corduroy are considered casual, and are usually favoured in colder climates
during seasonal periods. Corduroy is most commonly found in the construction of
pants or trousers. The material is also used in the construction of (sport)
jackets and shirts. The width of the cord is commonly referred to as ?wale?; the
size of the wale. The width of the ?wale? makes some uses more common than
others. Wide ?wale? is more commonly found on pants.
A fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern
formed by weaving. The term originally referred to ornamental silk fabrics from
Damascus, which were elaborately woven in colours, sometimes with the addition
of gold and other metallic threads.
Denotes a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi-
"double") or more warp fibres, producing the familiar diagonal ribbing
identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton
duck. Denim was traditionally coloured blue with indigo dye to make blue
"jeans," though "jean" denoted a different, lighter cotton textile.
A non woven fabric where the fibre forms the structure of the fabric. This
occurs by a process of wet felting where the natural wool fibre is stimulated by
friction and lubricated by moisture (usually water) and the fibres move at a 90
degree angle towards the friction source and then away again, in effect making
little 'tacking' stitches.
A material with an open, diamond shaped knit. Fishnet is most often used as a
material for stockings, tights or body stockings. Fishnet is available in a
multitude of colours, though most often sported in traditional matte black.
Fishnet is commonly worn on the legs and arms by practitioners of Goth.
A fabric that is commonly used to make clothing and bed sheets. It is usually
made from either wool, wool and cotton, or wool and synthetic fabric. The term
"flannel" is also often used to refer directly to the clothing created from the
fabric. Clothing made from it is usually worn in cold weather climates due to
the warmness that the fabric is known for.
A tough, tightly woven fabric used to make suits, overcoats and trousers, or a
garment made from the material. The fibre used to make the fabric is
traditionally worsted (a woollen yarn), but may also be cotton, synthetic or
mixed. The fabric is smooth on one side and has a diagonally ribbed surface on
the other. The fabric takes its name from the garment, the gabardine, which is a
long, loose over garment tied at the waist.
A long, soft, shiny fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is
one of the cheapest natural fibres, and is second only to cotton in amount
produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant
materials cellulose, lignin, and pectin. Both the fibre and the plant from which
it comes are commonly called jute.
A material made from the fibres of the flax plant. When these fibres are twisted
together (spun), it is called yarn. It is strong, durable, and resists rotting
in damp climates. It is one of the few textiles that has a greater breaking
strength wet than dry. The fibre in its un-spun state is called flax. After it
is spun into yarn it becomes linen.
A silk-like fabric made from the hair of the Angora goat. It is durable, light
and warm. The word was adopted into English before 1570 from the Arabic
mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally 'choice', from khayyana, 'he chose'.
Non-woven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt.
Non-woven are typically not strong, and do not stretch. They are cheap to
manufacture. Non-woven fabric is manufactured by putting small fibres together
in the form of a sheet and then binding them either mechanically, with an
A transparent fibre made of processed cellulose. Cellulose fibres from wood or
cotton are dissolved in alkali to make a solution called viscose, which is then
extruded through a nozzle, into an acid bath to reconvert the viscose into
cellulose. Rayon was originally named artificial silk, but the name rayon was
created in 1924. Unlike nylon, rayon absorbs water, making it more comfortable
to wear as a clothing textile.
A thick cloth that has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is traditionally
made of silk, but can be rayon.
A type of woollen cloth common in mediaeval England. The name refers to the
actual cloth, not the reddish orange colour. It is probable that name of the
character Will Scarlett in the Robin Hood legends referred to this type of
A very light textile made from cotton, or sometimes flax. Their lightweight and
translucence means it is often used for curtains. The fabric can also be used
for bookbinding and upholstery. Scrims have also seen extensive use in theatre
where they are often used for special effects. The advantage of scrims is that
with certain they can appear opaque to the audience until a quick change in
stage lighting makes them almost fully transparent.
A type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made
with a 2-up, 2-down weave. The worsted variety is used in making military
uniforms, suits, great and trench coats. Its counterpart, silk serge, is used
A natural fibre that can be woven into textiles. It is obtained from the cocoon
of the silkworm larva, in the process known as sericulture, which kills the
A specific woven pattern that often signifies a particular Scottish clan in the
modern era. The pattern is made with alternating bands of coloured threads woven
as both warp and weft at right angles to each other. Kilts almost always have
tartans. Tartan is also known as plaid in North America, but in Scotland this
word means a tartan cloth slung over the shoulder or blanket.
A form of textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet. It combines the stretchy
properties of knits such as spandex with the rich appearance and feel of velvet.
It is used in dancewear for the ease of movement it affords. Velour is also
popular for warm, colourful casual clothing.
A form of textile that is woven special looms. It is a tufted fabric in which
the cut threads are very evenly distributed, giving it its distinct feel. Two
pieces of velvet must be woven at the same time. They are then cut apart and the
two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls. Velvet was very
expensive. Corduroy and velveteen, when first produced, were considered the
"poor man's velvet".
A viscous organic liquid used to make rayon and cellophane. Cellulose from wood
or cotton fibres is treated with sodium hydroxide, then mixed with carbon
disulphide to form cellulose xanthate, which is dissolved in more sodium
hydroxide. The resulting viscose is extruded through a slit to make cellophane,
or through a spinneret to make viscose rayon. The process for manufacturing
viscose was discovered by three British chemists, Charles Cross, Edward Bevan
and Clayton Beadle.
Most of the fibre from domestic sheep has two qualities that distinguish it from
hair or fur: it is scaled in such a way that it helps the animal move out burrs
and seeds that might embed themselves into its skin; and it is crimped, in some
fleeces more than 20 bends per inch
A long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the
production of textiles, sewing, knitting, weaving and rope making. Yarn can be
made from any number of synthetic or natural fibres. Very thin yarn is referred
to as thread. Yarns are made up of any number of plys, each ply being a single
thread these threads being twisted together to make the final yarn
Fashion Medieval Terms used in fashion